Bhojnani virudhyante taani vidvaan vivrjayet ||”
(Ashtang Sangrah 10/73)
Means: A wise should always avoid such substances in his diet which are in any way unhealthy to him. They can be incompatible by nature, quantity, combination and by the mixture of such substances whose influence is not to suitable to each other. Turning the pages, to the basic definition.
That is something special or contradictory. It basically refers to the situation when an individual consumes food against the diet schedule and it starts working as an acute poison instead of providing nourishment and nurturing the body. This is called Viruddha. The same has been described by Different Scholars of Ayurveda. Acharya Charaka, shushruta and Vagbhatta came up with different inscribed text in their respective contexts which are provided and described in detail below:
By Acharya Charaka :
‘Yat kinchit doshmastravya na nirharti kayatah aaharjatam tat sarvamhitayopapadyate’
(Charaka Su. 26/85)
The food and drugs which dislodge the doshas from its normal seat, but do not expel it out of the body are regarded as Viruddha.
By Acharya Shushruta :
‘Yat kinchit doshamutklishya bhuktam kopaanna nirharet rasadishvayathartham va tadvikaraykalpate’ (Shushruta Su 20/20)
The substances (incompatible by nature, quantity, combination and by the mixture of such substances whose influence is not to suitable to each other ) when taken by the individual aggravates the doshas. They do not help in the nourishment of dhatus, but instead they vitiate dhatus and produce many diseases, are known as Viruddha. This aggravated doshas only cause abnormalities and are never expelled out from the body.
By Acharya Vagbhatt :
‘Yat kinchit doshamutkleshya na haret tat samaasat viruddham’ (Ashtang Hridya su. 7/45)
The food, drink and medicine which does the dislodgement of dosa from its site i.e. Doshotklesha, but does not expel it out is known as Viruddha.
The consequences of the same are provided by these respective Acharayas as follows :
By Acharya Charaka :
‘Dehdhatu pratyanikbhutani dravyani dehdhatubhih virodham aapadyante’ (Charaka Su. 26/81)
The drugs which are antagonistic to body and dhatus are called as Viruddha.
By Acharya Shushruta :
‘Tartamyogyuktansh bhaavanatisnigdhaniatirukshanintyushnanatyasheetanityevmaaden vivrjeyet’
(Shushruta Su 20/27)
Things which should be avoided in a diet are: Those which are profound or more profound to their various senses being it taste, smell, potency or the taste created after digestion. It can be unctuousness or the food having too much of dryness, too much of heat or having too much of cold influence. Influence on extremes is the basic referral here.
By Acharya Vagbhatt :
‘Viruddhampi ch aaharam vidyadivishgaropmam’ (Ashtang Hridya su. 7/29)
The contradictory food is unwholesome to the body, it is possible that when two opposite influence combine the food starts acting as acute poison and chronic poison instead of providing nourishment and nutrients to the body.
Classification of Incompatibility (Viruddha)
‘yachchapi deshakaalagnimatra satmayaaniladibhih, sanskarto viryatashch koshthavastha kramerapi ||
Parihaaropcharabhyam pakaat sanyogtoapi ch, viruddham tat ch na hitam hritsampad vidhibhishch yat ||’ (C. Su. 26/86-87)
This here refers to the fact that not only the influential essence of the substance matter but the place, time, Digestive fire, quantity, conduciveness, dosha, processing, potency, bowel, State of health, Order of Intake, cooking, combination, wholesomeness, quality and the rules of Intake. These are the basic influential factors which lead to aggravation of Doshas when specific combinations (Opposite to the nature allowance) taken together.
Specifying all these factors in detail:
|Time||State of health|
|Digestive Fire (Agni)||Order of intake|
|Potency||Rules of intake|
- Place (Desha viruddha)
‘Viruddham deshatastaavadrukshatikshanadi dhanvani, anupe snigdha shitadi bheshajam yannishevte’ (C. Su. 26/88)
There are three types of lands.
‘Jangalevata bhuyishtham aanupe tu kapholbanam, sadharanam sammalam tridha bhudeshamadishet’ (As. Hr. Su. 1/23)
Arid Zone is the dry land with less water, so the animals, plants and humans in that land are vata predominant in nature. If they consume dry (Ruksha), sharp (tiksna) food and medicine, it will lead to aggravation of vata.
In the same way Marshy land is characterized by excess water and unctuousness, so people are afflicted with kapha disorders. So if they consume more of unctuous, cold food and medicine, it will lead to kapha diseases.
This is desha viruddha, with an example that : Honey if warmed may produce harm to the person suffering from complications of heat.
- Time (Kala viruddha)
‘Kalatoapi viruddham yachchitrukshadisevanam, shitkale tathotashne ch katukoshnadisevanam’
(C. Su. 26/89)
Excessive intake of dry and cold food in winter season and excessive intake of hot and pungent food during summer season are quoted as Kala viruddha, as they are antagonistic.
Day- Food should be consumed two times in a day i.e. morning and evening. At night amount of food should be less.
Disease conditions and conducive food- Food which is conducive to a particular disease should be consumed.
- Digestive fire (Agni viruddha)
‘Viruddhamnale tadvadannapanam chaturvidhe, terbhavedvishamastikshno mandashchagni sameh samah.
Yameshchaturbhidarvabhyam va bhojya bheshajyayoh same, pakoagno yuktyordraktu tikshne mande punashchirat.’
(Ch. Su. 26/90)
In normal digestion power (samagni) food gets digested within two yama. In high digestion power (tiksnagni) it gets digested very early, whereas it gets digested after a long time in low digestion power (mandagni). Heavy food in mandagni person and light food in less quantity in tiksnagni person act as viruddha.
- Quantity (matra viruddha)
‘Madhu sarpih samghrutam matraya tadvirudhayate’
Honey and ghee in equal proportion (weight/weight) act as matra viruddha i.e. contradictory in quantity.
- Conduciveness (satmya viruddha)
‘Katukoshnadisatmaya swadushitadisevanam yattat satmaya viruddham’ (C. Su. 26/90)
Intake of sweet and cold food for a person who is accustomed to pungent and hot food, it is contradictory in conduciveness.
- Processing (Sanskara viruddha)
‘Ya samaangunabhyas viruddhaannaushadh kriya, sanskarto viruddham tadbhobhyam vishvat bhavet.
Eranda siskasaktam shikhimamsam tathev ch.’ (C. Su. 26/91)
Meat of peacock roasted in castor oil, boiling of butter milk, using the oil for frying, which has been used for the purpose of frying earlier. Adding honey to hot water are antagonistic. The pigeon fried in mustard oil is also viruddha.
- Potency (Virya viruddha)
‘Viruddham viryato gyeyam viryatah shitlatmakam, tat sanyojyoshan viryen dven sah sevyate.’ (C. Su. 26/93)
The dravyas having contradictory potency are taken together in virya viruddha. Cilacima variety of fish with milk. Both have sweet taste, sweet (vipaka), but have contradictory potency, milk is cold and fish is hot in potency, so they vitiate the blood and abhisyandita produces obstruction of channels and blood diseases, constipation etc.
Meat of terrestrial and aquatic animals with honey, sesame, jiggery, milk, black gram, radish, lotus stem and sprouted pulses produces deafness, blindness, tremors, abnormality, indistinct speech, nasal speech and even death.
Flesh of dove fried in mustard oil with honey and milk is also viruddha.
Intake of pigeons flesh fried in mustard oil with honey and milk produce blood disorders, obstruction of channels, atherosclerosis, convulsion, headache, enlargement in throat, diphtheria, stiffness of neck and death.
- Bowel (Kostha viruddha)
‘Krurkoshthasya chatyalpam mandviryambhednam, mridukoshthasya gurum ch bhedniyam tatha bahuh.
Etat kostha viruddham.’ (C. Su. 26/94-95)
Administration of mild purgative in small dose in hard bowel person, administration of strong purgative in large dose in soft bowel person are kostha viruddha.
- Condition of health (Avastha viruddha)
‘Sramvyavaya vyayamsakthasthanilkopanam, nidralasyasya bhojnam sleshmakopanam.’ (Ch. Su. 26/96)
Intake of vata aggravating diet by a person whose vata is aggravated due to excessive exhaustion and sexual act.
Intake of cough (slesmala) diet by a person, whose phlegm-vitiating (sleshma) is aggravated due to excess of sleep and laziness.
- Contradictory to rules (Krama viruddha)
‘yachchaanutsrijya vinmutram bhunkte yachchabubhukshitam, yachcha kramaviruddham syadyachchatishrudvashanugah.’
(Ch. Su. 26/97)
If the person consumes food before earlier food is digested, without evacuation of faeces and urine, it is contradictory to rules.
- Practice (Parihara viruddha)
‘Parihara viruddham tu varahadinishevya yat, sevetoshnam gritadhishch pitva shitam nishevte.’ (Ch. Su. 26/98)
Intake of hot things after taking pork and intake of cold things after taking ghee are known as parihara viruddha.
- Defect in the process of preparation (Paka viruddha)
‘Viruddham pakataschapi dustdurdarusadhitam, apakvatandulatyatyartha pakvadagdham ch yadbhavet. (Ch. Su. 26/99)
Preparation of food having bad, rotten odour, under cooking, over cooking and burning are considered as paka viruddha.
- Combination (Samyoga viruddha)
‘Sanyogto viruddham tadyatha amlam payasa sah’ (C. Su. 26/ 100)
Milk with Sour substance (Charak) or Fruits & Sour Substance (Shushruta) taken with milk or before and after it will be contradictory in combination.
- Contradictory to mind (Hrdviruddha)
‘Amnoruchitam yachch hrdviruddham taduchyate’ (C. Su. 26/100)
Any substance which is not pleasant to taste is hrdviruddha.
- Richness of quality (Sampat viruddha)
‘Sampatviruddham tadvidyat asanjaat rasam tu yat, atikrantrasam vapi vipannarasamev va’ (C. Su. 26/101)
The food articles which are immature, over mature or putrified are considered as sampat viruddha.
- Codes (vidhi Viruddha)
‘Gyeyam vidhiviruddham tu bhujyate nibhrite na yat, tadevam vidham annam syadviruddham upyojiyam’
The food taken against the rules told in Ayurveda.
- Dosa (Dosa Viruddha)
Utilization of food which are having qualities similar to aggravated dosa.